Pile loading tests are applied as per ASTM-D 1143. Purpose of the load test is to measure the reactions of piles when static loads of several calibres are applied.


2.1. The applied loads could be;

a-) Dead Loads
b-) Tension piles or anchors.

- The loads are applied by hydraulic jack or jacks, concentricly, without creating any eccentricity. The load applying system consists of hydraulic jack, feeding pump and manometer, that are to be calibrated before the test.

- The head of pile is to be demolished and cleaned up to sound concrete and a new pile head is to be formed. A thick steel plate is placed on pile head for equal load distribution. The hydraulic jacks having enough capacity of loading are placed on the steel plates.

- The reaction system(main girders and all necessary load transferring elements) should be of required loading capacity.

- Consistent number of steel rebar, is to be used in tension piles. Necessary welding is to be made to firmly connect the rebar to maşn reaction girders.

- In loading with dead load(concrete cubes or steel bars) the amount of loads, has to be 10% excessive of the test load.

3.0 -) Deflection(Settlement or Uplift) Measurements

3.1. The deflections of the test pile are measured from the reference beams placed and supported to a mininmum 2,5 m distance in two opposite sides of the test pile. Reference beams are rigid steel beams. One end is fixed supported, the other is roller supported for the purpose of minimizing the effects of thermal expansion/reduction due to temperature changes.

3.2. The deflections of the test pile are measured by two or four dial gages, resting on reference beams. As an additional supporting measurement system, some scales are placed on the test and tension piles for optical measurement.


4.1. Standard Loading Procedu

Single piles are loaded to %200 of design load(service load), pile groups are loaded to %150 of service load if failure does not occur. Load increment factor is %25 of the design or test load. Load kept constant in every increment(maximum of 2 hours) till settlement rate falls below 0.25 mm/hour. The maximum load(test load) is kept constant for twelve hours, if no failure occurs. Load decrement factor is %25 of the design or test load with one hour intervals.

Cyclic Loading Procedure

First load applying is identical with 4.1. The load applied on single piles should be %50, %100, %150 of service loads, for group piles these values are %50 and %100 of the service loads. Load is kept one hour in every load increment and decreased with the same rate once every twenty minutes. Loading initiates again by waiting twenty minutes after unloading. The increments and decrements are to be similar with above until full test load is achieved.


- The report should contain the following data;
- The production report and layout of test and tension piles
- Service, design or test load amount
- Pile type
- Pile testing setup
- Installation and Casting Date of Piles
- Loading Date and Times
- Loading and Measurement Procedures
- Applied Test Loading Program
- Loading and Load Measurement Systems and Devices Explanation
- Detailed deflection readings
- Tables of Loadings and Deflection Measurements
- Optical Measurements
- Calibration Certificates
- The temperature and weather conditions during loading.