The vertical and horizontal deformations in the lining system and structures surrounding the workplace can be determined by the means of two methods:

1- Optical Reading

2- Inclinometer

Inclinometer is a tool that helps measure the vertical deflection of bores’ central axis. One can obtain results for many bores at once with the use of only one inclinometer. Inclinometers due to their sensitivity, can record slight soil agitations. It should be noted that there is the possibility that in case of a large displacement of soil, the inclinometer might get stuck in the hole.


Inclinometre equipment consists of the probe, the recorder and the connecting cables between the two. The probe body, made of stainless steel, connects to two ends with wheels. Probe moves through perpendicularly placed 4 elastic and circular piles. The data via the electric control box is converted into visual representations.


For the measurement of horizontal or vertical displacements, boreholes are drilled. Cement slurry is poured around inclinometer pipes to prevent boreholes from deforming and inclinometer pipes from rotating around themselves. There are 4 channels located perpendicular from one another at the inclinometer. Opposite sides are either assumed as A+ and A- couple or B+ and B- couple. The couples easen the movement of the probe within the channels thus help provide to spot the deformations. A+ and A- couple are placed on the axis of the expected movement direction as a reference direction. Placed complying to the previously mentioned alignment, the 3m long inclinometer pipes are descended to the project depth in a specially connected form. After their descent, cement is injected around the pipes, later waited for its’ set. Following, the probe’s first wheel should align with the reference direction, A+, and then it is gradually lowered to the bottom of the hole while maintaining its connection with the recording machine at all stages.